The immature inflorescence (spadix) is covered in spathes. La fécondation artificielle du cocotier [The controlled pollination of coconut]. Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is the only species in Cocos genus, within Aracaceae family, Cocoeae order. In the Hawaiian Islands, the coconut is regarded as a Polynesian introduction, first brought to the islands by early Polynesian voyagers from their homelands in Oceania. The coconut is a monoecious plant producing male and female flowers separately on the same tree. B.S. Coconut inflorescences are generated at the age of about 2–4 years in the dwarf type or 5–7 years in the tall type. Mixed Inflorescence: In this case two or more types of inflorescence get mixed up to form a mixed … allergies popped up to cat's, dog's, coconut, and adhesive to name a few. Manual on Standardized Research Techniques in Coconut Breeding. It can be polished and varnished to make containers. Before the palms reach a height which makes controlled pollinations difficult. 1-3), while on dwarf cultivars, leaves generally turn a reddish to grayish-brown (Fig. Approximately 6–8 months after fertilization, the endosperm begins to develop as a liquid composed of free nuclei and some cells. Two of the eyes are lignified. Indonesia, Philippines, India, and Sri Lanka are the major coconut-producing countries. On the tree, mark the fruits with a felt-tipped pen with indelible black ink. Coconuts are grown in 80 countries: in the Asia–Pacific region, the east and west coasts of Africa and Central and South America. Maturation is reached when the husk becomes dry after about 2 weeks. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy; French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development, Montpellier, France. Biologie florale du cocotier. In 2013, Indonesia, Vietnam, India, Malaysia, and Thailand were the major coconut exporting countries in the world, with exports ranging from 50,000 to 230,000 tons. Each leaf measures 5–6 m in length and weighs 10–15 kg. Place the germinated nut in a bag half-filled with soil, with the sprout upright in the centre of the bag, then top the bag up with soil. Africa Rice Center | Bioversity International | CIAT | CIMMYT | CIP | ICARDA | ICRISAT | IFPRI | IITA | ILRI | IRRI |, Genetic resources and genebank management, Pre-breeding for Effective Use of Plant Genetic Resources, Spatial Analysis of Plant Diversity and Distribution, In vitro conservation and cryopreservation, Rice seeds from arrival at IRRI to departure. They have been found in the Caribbean and the Atlantic coasts of Africa and South America for less than 500 years (the Caribbean native inhabitants do not have a dialect term for them, but use the Portuguese name), but evidence of their presence on the Pacific coast of South America antedates Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the Americas. Using the Coconut Data Management (CDM) software and a planting map (see section on planting layout) can also help identify palm pedigrees. Oléagineux 31:13–18. 7.7B). (photo: Fonana Youssouf), Harvested coconut seednuts (photo: Fonana Youssouf). When dried the inflorescence are used as a broom, especially on the beach when making a space for a lovely picnic. The male … Dwarf coconut palms reach a height of 8–10 m in 20 years. It has five stamens. Coconut palms can be classified according to the size and stature of the palm, and are referred to as Talls and Dwarfs. Clear the seedbed before ploughing and harrowing it to a fine tilth. After planting in the field, mark the palm by painting the trunk to avoid any error during the observation. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. They begin bearing about the third year and have a shorter productive life of 30–40 years. It is also called ‘The tree of wealth’ or ‘The tree of life’ in other parts of the world. For example, 95% of yellow and red dwarfs are autogamous (self-pollinating) and the yellow or red colour of the sprout of the germinated seed nuts can be used as a genetic marker to eliminate off-types. There are also palms which produce either completely male or female flowers. For regenerating a tall accession, choose 48 female parents and 24 male parents (a convenient number according to the available size of the accession and the planned duration of the controlled pollination programme). IPGRI, Rome, Italy. Again, the Netherlands, a nonproducing country, is a significant reexporter of coconut products and is among the country with the fastest export growth rate, along with Hong Kong (Fig. McVetty, ... Randall J. Weselake, in, Coconut Biodiversity – Nature’s Gift to the Tropical Islands, Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands, J. Siriphanich, ... S. Tongchitpakdee, in, Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Cocona to Mango, Case study: application of appropriate technologies to improve the quality and safety of coconut water, Food Safety and Quality Systems in Developing Countries, Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third Edition). Packaged coconut water products marketed in developing countries. The other is a soft eye having the embryo located underneath. The immature inflorescence (spadix) is covered in spathes. These are the “tall” and “dwarf” coconut trees. Coconut varieties are classified into four groups according to their mode of reproduction: Type I (strict allogamy): Short female phase with no overlap with the male phase of the same inflorescence or with the male phase of the following inflorescence. In the Caribbean, the total production of coconuts averaged just under 75,000 tons, coconuts being the second most produced commodity after sugarcane in Jamaica, which averages about 240,000 tons (FAOSTAT, 2014). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The inflorescence is a spike produced at the leaf axil with 20–60 branches, each with a female flower at the base and many male flowers. Coconut provides a wide spectrum of human consumable products such as oil, kernel, tender nut water, toddy, neera, coconut sugar, immature inflorescence and haustorium. The fruit is a fibrous drupe with a smooth outside skin (exocarp) which varies in colour. Figure 9.1. (1996). The vascular sap collected from immature unopened coconut inflorescence is popularly known as Neera in fresh form. A tall coconut with niu kafa fruit. Coconut is an important subsistence crop of the humid tropical zones and is a life-supporting species in fragile island and coastal ecosystems. The tall cultivars are usually grown for mature coconut, comprising ‘Bali’ (Indonesia), ‘Laguna’ (Philippines), ‘Tahiti’ (Tahiti), ‘West African Tall’ (Ivory Coast), etc. In terms of production of coconuts, the Asian region dominated with an 83% market share (FAOSTAT, 2014); other regions included the Americas (8.7%), Oceania (4.8%), and Africa (3.4%). coconut palm. The smaller male flowers are at the tip of the inflorescence, while the larger female flowers are at the base. The male flowers, which are on the top portion of spikelets attached to the peduncle, are more numerous than the female flowers, which occupy the base of the spikelets. 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